I was rereading the introduction to Tao : a new way of thinking by the late Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii, Chung-yuan Chang. He was discussing the meaning of Tao when he noted that “In Chinese art, the soundless is more primordial than sound.” I suppose that is correct, in the beginning there would be silence before sound…
In any case, he goes on to quote Heidegger (On The Way to Language):
The soundless gathering call by which Saying moves the world-relation on its way, we call the ringing of stillness.
Chung-yuan Chang comments, “It is this ringing of stillness that opens the mind of man to Eastern aesthetics… Thus, the question remains: How does one attain Tao?” The Buddhist might ask, How does one attain enlightenment?
Chung-yuan Chang goes on to quote Chapter 38 of the Lao Tzu’s Tao Te Ching:
The highest attainment is free from attainment.
Therefore, there is attainment.
The lowest attainment is never free from attainment.
Therefore, there is no attainment.
Following this, he shares these words from the 4th century Buddhist philosopher, Shen Chao:
You may conceive of attainment as that which is able to be attained. Therefore, there is attainment. However, I consider attainment as nothing to be attained. Therefore, attainment is achieved though non-attainment… Subtle wisdom lies beyond things…”
Lao Tzu suggested that we understand Tao (and Buddhahood) by not understanding it, one of those paradoxical statements that Taoism and Zen (heavily influenced by Taoism) are well-known for. Thing is, we shouldn’t be looking for attainment in the first place but rather “subtle wisdom.” Attainment is an established ideal, while acquiring subtle wisdom is a practical process we call The Way.
The English word “subtle” corresponds with the Chinese character miao, which means “wonderful, mystic, clever, and subtle.” Of these meanings, T’ien-t’ai master Chih-i preferred “subtle.” Paul Swanson, in Foundations of T’ien-T’ai Philosophy, states, “For Chih-i the word ‘subtle’ symbolized and summarized that which is beyond conceptual understanding and thus it is the word most appropriate to describe reality, which is ultimately indescribable.”
[Image: Chinese character “miao”]
Reality is that which is genuine, original or natural, as opposed to that which is artificial and illusory. We are not trying to achieve something so much as we are trying to see through something. We’re trying to see through the real and into the Real.
That’s why the Tao Te Ching says, “The Tao that can be told is not the infinite Tao,” and why the Heart Sutra says, “Within emptiness… there is no attainment with nothing to attain.” And yet, the Heart Sutra also says that all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas practice in the way of Transcendental Wisdom and “awake to complete and perfect enlightenment.” Huh?
Lama Govinda explains that is means “Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are not enlightened by fixed teaching but by an intuitive process that is spontaneous and natural.”
Introspection or meditation is the observation of subjective mental qualities. It is not thought. However, it is probably as far from thought as we can get. Wayfarers should want to cultivate a mind that that does not seize and cling to things, an open mind, a mind not fixed or locked, unreceptive to new ideas, lacking flexibility. This may seem to be a very simple thing but actually it is quite difficult to realize on a ongoing basis.
Finally Chung-yuan Chang quotes Heidegger quoting Nietzsche:
Our thinking should have a vigorous fragrance, like a wheat field on a summer’s night.
If fragrance had a sound, it would be the ringing of subtle wisdom.