Last week, on Wednesday August 10, in Thiksey Ladakh India, Tenzin Gyatsu, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, gave teachings on “A Commentary on the Awakening Mind” (Bodhichittavivarana) by Nagarjuna and Atisha ‘s “A Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment” (Bodhipathapradipa).
At this session, the Dalai Lama made a some comments I thought were shareworthy. They concern the term ‘dharma.’
Dharma is a key Buddhist term layered with multiple meanings. The original Indian definition referred to ‘duty’, and ‘law.’ In Buddhism, we often see dharma translated as ‘law,’ meaning a natural order or ultimate principle of the universe. The Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by Soothill and Hodous provides more definitions: “(1) thing, object, appearance; (2) characteristic, attribute, predicate; (3) the substantial bearer of the substratum of the simple element of conscious life; (4) element of conscious life; (5) nirvana, i.e. dharma par excellence; (6) the absolute, the truly real; (7) the teaching [of the] Buddha.”
Here is what the Dalai Lama said about dharma:
Since you’ve gathered here to listen to a Buddhist discourse, you should understand that the word ‘Dharma’ refers to making a spiritual transformation within ourselves by putting the teaching into practice . . . You can’t expect to make such transformation just on the basis of wishes or prayers. It will only come about by integrating the teaching within ourselves. The source of our problems is our disturbing emotions. Since we all want to be happy and avoid suffering we need to know what needs to be abandoned and what needs to be cultivated in order to fulfill these aspirations. To bring about a transformation we need to apply the teaching within ourselves and in order to do that we need to listen and learn what’s involved . . .”
In this way, we can add another layer of meaning to the term and say that dharma is transformation. Not merely arbitrary change, but rather change according to Buddha’s dharma, which is directed at the task of inner transformation. The dharma that supports a revolution of body, mind and spirit, is not difficult to find. Dharma is all around us, or as Hui-neng (638-713), the Sixth Patriarch of the Ch’an school, said,
The dharma is to be found in this world and not in another. To leave this world to search for the dharma is as futile as searching for a rabbit with horns.”
Read the article about the Dalai Lama’s teaching session, with more excerpts, on the Dalai Lama’s website here.