Ghoulies and Ghosties . . .

And long-leggety beasties and things that go bump in the night! It’s Halloween once again. Funny how it always comes on October 31st, isn’t it?

Now, as you may or may not know, the word Halloween comes from Old English and means ‘hallowed evening’ or ‘holy evening’, referring to the eve before All Hallows Day or The Feast of All Saints. Well, somehow over the centuries, Halloween became associated with things very much unholy: ghouls, ghosts, goblins, vampires, werewolves, and all the rest.

IMG_2418b3
In 2011, I was able to take this shot of Big Jerome, the ghost of E. Hollywood Blvd. He must be a hungry ghost because he usually makes his appearances near Thai restaurants.

Here’s some more etymology for you, the word ‘ghost’ comes from High German geist or ‘spirit’ and is related to the Sanskrit word heda, ‘anger.’ The concept of a ghost is based on the idea that a person’s spirit exists separately from his or her body. This is not exactly how Buddhism sees things, but nonetheless we have plenty of specters floating around the Buddhist world and they are called “hungry ghosts.” Actually, they are not quite “ghosts” because they are only half-dead, but why nit-pick.

Hungry ghosts can be found in folklore from every corner of Asia. They are usually described as having mummified skin, withered limbs, extended stomachs, long thin necks, and sometimes they breathe fire.

Hungry ghosts are hungry for life, but for some reason they are not capable of experiencing it completely. The unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) they feel is the misery of being only half-alive.

Hungry_Ghosts_Scroll
12th Century Japanese painting on a scroll, depicting one of the Buddha’s disciples, Ananda being confronted by a hungry ghost.

In Tibet, “hungry ghosts” (Sanskrit: pretas) exist in their own realm on the Wheel of Becoming (Bhavacakra). In the Tibetan Book of the Dead, it says “At the same time a soft yellow light of the hungry ghosts realm shines before you, penetrating your heart in parallel with the wisdom light. Do not indulge in it! Abandon clinging and longing!” Indeed, you don’t want to mess with the hungry ghost realm.

In Japanese Buddhism they have gaki, spirits who are cursed with insatiable desires, and jikininki, man-eating ghosts, hungrier than anyone in the Donner party.

Hungry ghosts can be understood metaphorically, of course.  They represent a life-condition in which one is never satisfied, subject to constant craving. A person in such a state is miserable, and their misery stems from looking for satisfaction from things outside of their own lives. When we have realized inner-contentment, and are satisfied with the knowledge of our true nature, there is no need to look anywhere for peace, satisfaction, happiness, for we understand that it is always present within us. All we need to do is tap into it.

Here’s what Shunryu Suzuki had to say about this in Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind:

When we express our true nature, we are human beings. When we do not, we do not know what we are. We are not an animal, because we walk on two legs. We are something different from an animal, but what are we? We may be a ghost; we do not know what to call ourselves. Such a creature does not actually exist. It is a delusion. We are not a human being anymore, but we do exist . . .

If something exists, it has its own true nature, its Buddha nature. In the Pari-nirvana Sutra, Buddha says, “Everything has Buddha nature,” but Dogen reads it in this way: “Everything is Buddha nature.” There is a difference. If you say, “Everything has Buddha nature,” it means Buddha nature is in each existence, so Buddha nature and each existence are different. But when you say, “Everything is Buddha nature,” it means everything is Buddha nature itself. When there is no Buddha nature, there is nothing at all. Something apart from Buddha nature is just a delusion. It may exist in your mind, but such things actually do not exist.

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The Spike

lou-reed1943-2013summer of ‘67
sitting with a friend in a ’59 ford
beneath a bridge in new orleans
trying to grow our hair long
wishing we knew some girls
or where to get some pot
sharing a half-pint of southern comfort
listening to radio free new orleans
when I heard it the first time
white light goin’ messin’ up my mind
white light don’t you know its gonna make me go blind
that song didn’t rock didn’t roll
it rattled with clumsy raw power
like a streetcar on st. charles
junky driven headlight hot
down to a subterranean
blue velvet perdition

he practically invented punk
glitter & glam
no romantic soul yearnings in those songs but
kicks & drug scum & dirty tenement windows
the main vein behind the urban flow
the intestines and tentacles of the streets
the refuge of memory the slickness of pretension

or as in the poems of his mentor before warhol
delmore schwartz his songs were just about
“the wound of consciousness”

lou_reed-2i saw him in New Orleans in 1974
his blonde hair year
he shot up onstage or pretended to
anyway a strange concert he barely moved
i’m pretty sure he shot up that night
before he even reached the stage

literate eclectic metal-manic poet
but that spike nullified
virus-blood infected the liver
he’d had a transplant earlier this year
suddenly he’s like my older brother
leading the way & if he could make thru a transplant then so could i
from everything I heard things were looking good . . .

walking in NYC, post-transplant
walking in NYC, post-transplant (eroteme.co.uk)

sometime between the hot new york nights
& the cold new york mornings
somewhere between the white light madness
& the pale eyed sadness
he tripped on the wire strung along the wild side
yet remained always nothing but himself

now the transformers are silent
the glitter has fallen from all the faces
the punks have punked out
& the colored girls sing
doo do doo do doo do do doo
he’s left his heat behind, baby

i’m really fuckin pissed lou reed is dead

& real fuckin sad

© 2013 dmriley

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Some Links:

loureed.com

NY Times Obituary

Some Music:

“One chord is fine, two chords are pushing it, three chords and you’re into jazz.”
– Lou Reed

White Light White Heat – The Velvet Underground

Lady Day – Lou Reed live in Paris, 1974

Pale Blue Eyes – Lou Reed live 1998

 

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Buddhism’s Wonder Woman

I’m still stuck on the subject of superheroes and the PBS documentary Superheroes: The Never-Ending Battle. As I wrote in the last post, the program takes a good look at how comics dealt with issues of race and gender equality.

Back in the day when I read comics, every character was white. There were no people of color unless they were mutants or from another planet, in which case they were green or red or purple, colors not reflecting the actual color of human skins. At one point in the saga of Green Lantern, long after I went from comics to other things, some writers at DC Comics came up with a story line to deal with the overall failure of their books to recognize racial diversity. An African-American man confronts the Green Lantern saying that in all the superhero’s intergalactic adventures he helped the orange skin on this planet and some other skin on another planet, but on this world “There’s skins you never bothered with. The black skins. I want to know how come? Answer me that, Mr. Green Lantern.” The superhero hangs his head in shame, and says, “I can’t.”

Wonder Woman was created in 1942 by a male psychologist whose work led to the invention of the polygraph and who believed that one day America would be a matriarchy
Wonder Woman was created in 1942 by a male psychologist whose work led to the invention of the polygraph and who believed that one day America would be a matriarchy

Comics didn’t deal very well with women either. They were treated as sex objects, regulated to supporting roles as the “damsel in distress” or as sidekicks. An exception was Wonder Woman, at one time the only female superhero in comics. Ironically, Wonder Woman’s creator was male and the majority of her early writers were also men. It was not until Lydia Carter played the character on TV in the 70’s that Wonder Woman was interpreted by a woman.

The show was popular with women. Carter says she never played the role as “sexy.” One commentator in the documentary notes, “The Wonder Woman TV show . . . captured the sense of Wonder Woman perfectly. Lydia Carter understood very clearly what that character was and what she was about, which was peace, equality, challenging gender norms, power through strength, but strength of will.”

Buddhism has a Wonder Woman: Kuan Yin. Originally, she was merely the female emanation of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, presented typically as male persona. However, in China, Kuan Yin came into her own as a strong female icon, the “Goddess of Compassion”.

Barbara E. Reed, who teaches in the Religion Department and Asian Studies Program at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, in “The Gender Symbolism of Kuan-yin Bodhisattva”, offers a succinct explanation of how Kuan Yin went from male to female:

Somehow during the assimilation into Chinese culture Kuan-yin Bodhisattva underwent a sexual transformation. The male Bodhisattva from India, Avalokitesvara, became a white-robed Chinese woman. In addition to the sex change, the female symbolism of the bodhisattva was expanded further by the addition of yin symbols (for example, moon, water, vase) from the yin-yang polarity of Chinese thought. In a Chinese culture dominated by Confucian social values, Chinese women saw this female symbol as particularly relevant to their problems as women. “

In the male-dominated Buddhist temples and monasteries of China, Kuan Yin is still nearly always male, while among everyday folk the bodhisattva is female.

But transcendence of gender is an ancillary function of Kuan Yin as an archetypal symbol, for she is most useful to us in epitomizing the power of compassion as tool for transformation. If you study the folk tales that were absorbed into the Kuan Yin story, you find that transformation is often a key theme: through tragedy an ordinary young girl becomes the great bodhisattva, Kuan Yin transforms an ugly bird into a peacock, a young hermit becomes an immortal, and so on.

In the 25th chapter of the Lotus Sutra, also known as the Kuan Yin Sutra, her mien is very much like that of a superhero. Caught in some dire predicament, if one has faith in Kuan Yin and calls her name, she will come to the rescue:

If you be pushed into a pit of fire, by enemies with intent to harm,
Invoke the name of Kuan Yin Bodhisattva and the pit will become a pond . . .

If caught by a band of callous bandits, with evil hearts and murder on their minds,
Call out Kuan Yin’s name and their hearts will turn soft and kind.

This is a literary device to convey the idea that if we trust the power of compassion, and use it, we can rescue others and ourselves from unhappiness. Compassion can facilitate a transformation within the mind, where we transcend the limits of restricted individual consciousness and enter into the realm of a true collective consciousness.

Rather than a cosmic being that exists above our everyday reality, Kuan Yin actually represents the universal capacity of all human beings to give love. Kuan Yin is an interior state of being that anyone, male or female, can realize.

My Kuan Yin
My Kuan Yin, in serene royal ease posture.

That’s one reason I have a statue of Kuan Yin on my altar, to remind me of this.

The logic of compassion calls for the co-existence of suffering sinners and compassionate buddhas and bodhisattvas. The sufferings of the former call forth the salvific energies of the latter. As long as there is suffering in the unhappy realms of rebirth, buddhas and bodhisattvas will continue to carry out their work of salvation, for the former constitutes the object of their compassion. In fact, without the former there will not, and cannot, be the latter.

Chun-fang yu, Kuan-yin The Chinese Transformation of Avalokitesvara

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The Never-Ending Battle

Like most American kids growing up anytime during the past 75 years, I was an avid reader of comic books. One of my first heroes was Superman, and not long afterward, I got into Batman, Green Lantern, Flash and all the other DC Comics crusaders. That was an era when superheroes were pretty much one-dimensional. Comics didn’t get really interesting until Marvel Comics came along and brought us superheroes who had angst. The Fantastic Four and Spiderman battled not only evil villains, but personal problems. It was a subtle shift in the way superheroes were presented but it changed comics forever.

Over the weekend, I watched great documentary on PBS called Superheroes: The Never-Ending Battle, hosted and narrated by Liev Schreiber. It traced the history of superhero comics from the birth of Superman in 1939 to the present, and it kind of made me regret giving up comics so many years ago. It was a purely economic decision on my part. My meager allowance did not provide me enough money to buy comics and records, and since I was no longer an adolescent but a teenager, rock and roll seemed much cooler.

But I’ve never lost my love for superheroes. I’ve seen most of the new movies and while I find the plots redundant, I can’t help but appreciate the special effects.

In any case, I highly recommend the documentary, especially if you ever loved comics. Among other things, it shines a light on how Marvel’s Jack Kirby and Jim Steranko both revolutionized comic art, and takes a hard look at how comics dealt with issues such as racism and feminism.

chopra-superman2013
Look, up in the sky! It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s Superguru!

Now, this is a clumsy segue but today is Deepak Chopra’s birthday (he’s 66). One reason I mention both Chopra and superheroes is to give me an excuse to repost the image on the left that I Photoshopped and used in a 2011 post.

I like to call Chopra the Rodney Dangerfield of spirituality/alternative medicine, because he don’t get no respect. As Time magazine noted in a 2008 article, he’s “a magnet for criticism”, but because he is popular (and yes, a bit of a huckster), he’s sometimes used as a TV “talking head” on religious matters, and I think he offers an alternative to the view provided by the adherents of Abrahamic religions that seems to dominate the media.

Another reason I bring Deepak Chopra up is so I can quote from his book The Seven Spiritual Laws of Superheroes*. Chopra talks about the Law of Transformation. He suggests that what makes superheroes both super and heroes is that they are able to “live without false boundaries between the personal and the universal”:

Transformation is the true nature of every being and of the universe itself. Superheroes are able to recognize their transformational selves and all the various forces at work within them and perceive the world from an infinite number of perspectives. In doing so, superheroes never face a conflict or adversary they are intimidated by or unable to empathize with.”

This may seem to be just more of the sort of easily digestible self-help pabulum Chopra is often taken to task for, but guess what? We can find essentially the same message in the Heart Sutra when it says,

Therefore, the Bodhisattvas rely on Prajna-Paramita, the most excellent wisdom, and with no hindrance of mind, no fears and no illusions, they enter into Nirvana.”

This world of suffering we inhabit is not different from Nirvana or peace, and when we base ourselves on the law of transformation, which the sutra calls Transcendent Wisdom, we open our lives to the infinite number of perspectives Chopra mentions above.

It’s said that the five skandhas or aggregates (form, sensation, perception, volition, and consciousness) are sources of suffering. Actually, we do not suffer from the five skandhas. Suffering comes from the value our mind attaches to them. Tantha (craving) is based on value judgments. If we can change our tendency to cling, to form attachments – in other words, if we change our perspective, then there is a real possibility for transforming our suffering into peace, happiness, Nirvana.

trio-4Superheroes have spiritual laws and they have wisdom, too. Here are some wise bits from my three all-time favorite superheroes.

‘What happens when the unstoppable force meets the immovable object?’ They surrender.”
– Superman (All-Star Superman #3)

 

With great power, there must also come great responsibility.”
– Spiderman (Amazing Fantasy #15)

 

The world must never again mistake compassion for weakness! And while I live — it had better not!”
– Captain America (Avengers, vol.1 #6)

‘Nuff said!

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The above drawings are by the original artists for the three superheroes: Joe Schuster (Superman), Steve Ditko (Spiderman), and Jack Kirby (Captain America).

* Deepak Chopra, The Seven Spiritual Laws of Superheroes, HarperCollins, 2011

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Wisdom You Won’t Find on Duck Dynasty

I’ve never watched the show, but somehow I don’t think this is what “Duck Dynasty” is about.

A frequent criticism of modern Buddhist is the almost one-sided emphasis on meditation. In response to my post last week on modern Buddhism, a reader commented that “not only is the sila [ethics] being left out by some folks, the prajna is also devalued as well.” I agree this certainly seems to be the case.

The Sanskrit word prajna is syllabified as praj, meaning “higher,” and na or “consciousness.” Wisdom is “above” consciousness, a state of realization caused by direct awareness into reality. In general, Buddhism distinguishes higher wisdom from knowledge. To the dismay of those critics of modern Buddhism obsessed with a purely intellectual approach, dharmic wisdom is not based solely on intellectual achievement.

It’s said that under the Bodhi tree, the Buddha awoke to three kinds of wisdom: the wisdom concerning all dharmas (things), the wisdom obtained by his own effort, and the natural wisdom.

The first wisdom corresponds to knowledge, specifically the understanding that nothing in the universe exists without a relationship of mutual dependence with other things. However, as previously stated, knowledge alone is not enough; the aim of Buddhism to go beyond knowledge to higher or deeper wisdom.

The second wisdom corresponds with jiriki, self or inner power. This wisdom, obtained through meditative concentration, we call dhyana-prajna.

The third wisdom, the natural wisdom, is the most intuitive of the three, the most difficult to describe in words. It has nothing to do with intelligence or shrewdness, rather it is the pristine wisdom innately possessed by mind. It is the buddha-nature, the mind of original enlightenment, also called “dustless wisdom.”

I think people grow tired of hearing about ineffable wisdom, wisdom that goes beyond wisdom, and so on. Maybe you have to experience it to understand, or perhaps folks would get a better feel for what we mean if we explain that it’s like breaking out of the prison of thought.

Awakening, the process of enlarging awareness, is different from thought. The aim is to free awareness, so that awareness requires no thought. It unfolds, as a flower unfolds, opening to the sun.

MP90040bThis is why Su Tung-p’o, the famous Chinese poet of the Song Dynasty, wrote,

The lush chrysanthemum is not different from prajna.”

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